With the fall weather here your family is likely to spend a lot of time outdoors. It’s still warm enough to barbecue and the kids love jumping in piles of leaves. What you don’t want to happen is for them to become victims of tick bites. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ticks on Long Island can spread diseases from Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme disease to Ehrlichiosis and Babesiosis. So what can you do to keep ticks away from you and your family?
Well, there are a few options. The first is to use a tick repellent. There are both chemical and natural tick repellents available on the market that all work relatively well when applied appropriately. However, if you really want to enjoy your yard as much as possible, the best thing to do is to manage the tick population in your yard and try to keep them as far from play and living areas as possible.
Make sure there is at least a 3-foot barrier of wood chips or gravel between your yard and any wooded areas surrounding it. Keep it clear of leaf litter, which is one of a tick’s favorite places to hide. If you have playground equipment try to place it in a sunny location; ticks absolutely love the shade and this will help keep them away from the kid’s playthings.
Keep your grass trimmed neatly. Tall grasses and brush should be cut down whenever possible as they can carry ticks and spread them to anyone who walks by.
Some people use tick tubes. These are tubes filled with cotton doused in Permethrin which can kill and repel ticks. These tubes are placed all around the yard and can help reduce tick populations by using mice to do the work. Mice take the cotton and make nests out of it and that in turn helps to keep ticks, which breed on and feed on mice, at bay.
Another step to control ticks is to keep your woodpile far away from your house. Keep your wood neatly stacked and dry and away from your lawn.
Finally, one of the best things to do to keep ticks from your yard is to have it treated for ticks by a licensed professional such as Organically Green Horticultural Services. Their tick repellent services can last up to a month and will make your yard a safer, and more comfortable place for your family to spend their time.
If you look online, you’ll find a lot of tips about how to remove a tick. Unfortunately, many of them, like painting the tick with petroleum jelly or nail polish, or holding a hot match to the tick is untrue, and can even be dangerous. This post will discuss the proper way to remove a tick and the best methods for caring for tick bites according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
The types of ticks you’ll find in our area most often are the Deer Tick (or the Black-legged Tick), the Dog Tick, or the Lone Star Tick. The former and the latter are known for spreading tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease.
In the spring, summer, and fall months tick bites are common. The best way to handle a tick bite is with prevention—through the use of an effective insect repellent. However, if you do find a tick attached to you, the key—according to the Centers for Disease Control—is not to panic.
Even though ticks transmit disease, it does not necessarily mean that every bite will infect you. Once you notice a tick on you the most important thing is to remove the tick quickly and cleanly. Using fine-tipped tweezers grasp the tick as close to the skin as possible. Then, pull cleanly and carefully up and out, making sure not to break off the head and mouthparts. Remember, while ticks transmit disease through bites, leaving these parts behind can lead to infection in the skin.
After removing the tick carefully wash the bite site with soap and water and dispose of the tick by putting it in alcohol, placing it in a sealed bag/container, wrapping it tightly in tape, or flushing it down the toilet. Afterward, just keep an eye on the area. While having a small red bump from the bite is normal, if the redness extends out, becomes a bulls-eye rash, or if you have any other symptoms such as lethargy, headache, etc., you may want to seek out medical advice. A doctor can run blood tests to check if the tick has transmitted any diseases to you.
It is no secret that tick bites can spread diseases-Lyme at the forefront- to your family as well as your pets. What you may not know is that according to the CDC, they believe there are cases of Lyme, that go unreported as some are unaware they are infected. Aside from Lyme, there are also several other diseases that ticks can carry, a few include Ehrlichiosis-carried primarily by the Lone star tick-, Babesiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Deer tick in questing pose. Credit: University of Maine
According to an article on the Veterinary Practice News website, a few of the reasons that tick populations have exploded is due to warmer winters, an increase in deer populations, birds carrying ticks to new areas, as well as the use of fewer insecticides. The article also states that in order to reduce the number of ticks the temperatures would have to be sustained at 10° F for a long period of time. Large amounts of snow also do nothing to eradicate these pests, instead, it acts as a blanket.
Deer tick life stages: Top left to right, Adult male, adult female; Bottom left to right, larvae, nymph Credit: www.tickencounter.org
Ticks are arachnids and related to spiders and mites. They have four life stages, egg, larvae, nymph, and adult. The three stages that feed on blood typically have a preference of host or size of their host and differ in their preferred environments. Most ticks also overwinter in the larval or nymph stage, and once the weather is favorable, they will begin immediately searching for a blood meal in order to advance to their next life stage. Some ticks also “quest” in order to find a host while others such as the Lone star tick will actively follow a host once it has sensed they are nearby. Questing involves the tick perching on vegetation (or structure) with its front legs extended in order to latch onto a passing host. Ticks can also sense the approach of a host through carbon dioxide, vibrations, etc.
On Long Island, we typically deal with three types of ticks, the deer (or black-legged tick), the Lone star tick and the American dog tick.
Lone Star tick life stages: Top left to right, Adult male, adult female; Bottom left to right, larvae, nymph Credit: www.tickencounter.org
The deer tick is the smallest of the three and is the primary vector of Lyme disease but also carries the Powassan virus, Babesiosis, Anaplasmosis.It prefers areas with moisture/ high humidity as they need to rehydrate their bodies frequently, making the edges of woodland or leaf litter, hot spots. White-tailed deer are the primary mode of dispersal for the adults, but it is believed that birds may aid in long-distance dispersal of immature life stages.
This tick passively quests or waits for a host to pass close enough so that they may attach themselves. According to the CDC, “Adult ticks may be out searching for a host any time winter temperatures are above freezing. All life stages bite humans, but nymphs and adult females are most commonly found on people.”
The Lone star tick, most commonly identified by the white dot on the female’s back, can transmit several diseases such as Ehrlichiosis, Tularemia, Heartland virus, and STARI (southern tick-associated rash illness). Alpha-gal syndrome (red meat allergy), has also been recently identified and is also associated with the bite of this tick.
American Dog tick life stages: Top, left to right, Adult male, adult female; Bottom left to right, larvae, nymph Credit: www.tickencounter.org
The Lone star tick can be found in areas with tall grass or low-lying branches/twigs and unlike the deer tick, is very resistant to desiccation. Organically Green had the pleasure to hear Dr. Moses Cucura, of Suffolk County DPW, speak on these pests and from his own personal experience and research has found that they are capable of following prey for up to 60’. The adults are active anytime the weather is above 38°F and prefer large hosts (humans, turkey, deer, etc) at all life stages.
The final tick we are going to discuss is the American dog tick which transmits tularemia and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Overall, the populations are spotty on Long Island but they require an environment with high humidity and can be found in old fields, brushy woodlands, and along roadsides.
The larvae prefer rodents such as groundhogs and will frequently be located around their burrows. The adults prefer medium to large hosts such as raccoons, dogs, cats, and humans.These ticks can survive at any given stage for two years if they are unable to locate a host.
Outside of taking the usual precautions—repellents (Permethrin clothing spray), checking yourself routinely, etc.—the CDC also recommends having a pesticide applied which can reduce the number of ticks by 68%-100%.
There are also a few cultural practices that can help reduce or discourage ticks:
Widening/trimming of trails
Leaf litter removal
Gravel edge barriers
Mulch barriers—if it absorbs moisture, not effective
Canopy thinning (increase light penetration)
Knowledge of ticks, the diseases they carry, and ways to reduce their numbers can lead to early detection and treatment. If infected, reducing the chance of having long-term effects of tick-borne diseases.