Summer is here and that means spending a lot more time outside. Unfortunately, part of that time outside often includes bug bites, particularly mosquito bites. The Centers for Disease Control list mosquitoes as spreading a number of diseases from EEE (Eastern Equine Encephalitis), and Yellow fever to Zika virus and even—in other parts of the world—malaria.
Mosquitoes are attracted to the carbon dioxide that we exhale when we breathe.
So, unless you’re willing to hold your breath while outside the next best thing is to avoid getting bitten by using an EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) registered insect repellent containing one of the following ingredients:
Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus (OLE)
All of these have been proven to be both safe and effective to repel mosquitoes when used properly and will help you to prevent mosquito bites.
The CDC also recommends preventative maintenance for mosquito control. This includes getting rid of or treating the breeding grounds that mosquitoes love. Any source of standing water from a plant saucer to a birdbath can become a place for mosquitoes to breed. If the water is necessary, such as a birdbath, treat it with a mosquito dunk. These are safe for birds and other wildlife but will kill any mosquito larvae and prevent eggs from hatching. All other sources of standing, untreated water should be dumped out.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also suggest avoiding the outdoors at dawn and dusk. These times of day are the most active for mosquitoes. If you must be outdoors at these times use mosquito nets around your seating areas, or wear long-sleeved shirts to help reduce the number of bites you receive.
Finally, if you know you’ll be having an event in advance, it’s a good idea to have your yard treated for mosquitoes so that you and your guests can be worry-free. If you’d like to have your yard treated call Organically Green Horticultural Service and they’ll treat your yard so that your party can be as bite-free as possible.
It is no secret that tick bites can spread diseases-Lyme at the forefront- to your family as well as your pets. What you may not know is that according to the CDC, they believe there are cases of Lyme, that go unreported as some are unaware they are infected. Aside from Lyme, there are also several other diseases that ticks can carry, a few include Ehrlichiosis-carried primarily by the Lone star tick-, Babesiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Deer tick in questing pose. Credit: University of Maine
According to an article on the Veterinary Practice News website, a few of the reasons that tick populations have exploded is due to warmer winters, an increase in deer populations, birds carrying ticks to new areas, as well as the use of fewer insecticides. The article also states that in order to reduce the number of ticks the temperatures would have to be sustained at 10° F for a long period of time. Large amounts of snow also do nothing to eradicate these pests, instead, it acts as a blanket.
Deer tick life stages: Top left to right, Adult male, adult female; Bottom left to right, larvae, nymph Credit: www.tickencounter.org
Ticks are arachnids and related to spiders and mites. They have four life stages, egg, larvae, nymph, and adult. The three stages that feed on blood typically have a preference of host or size of their host and differ in their preferred environments. Most ticks also overwinter in the larval or nymph stage, and once the weather is favorable, they will begin immediately searching for a blood meal in order to advance to their next life stage. Some ticks also “quest” in order to find a host while others such as the Lone star tick will actively follow a host once it has sensed they are nearby. Questing involves the tick perching on vegetation (or structure) with its front legs extended in order to latch onto a passing host. Ticks can also sense the approach of a host through carbon dioxide, vibrations, etc.
On Long Island, we typically deal with three types of ticks, the deer (or black-legged tick), the Lone star tick and the American dog tick.
Lone Star tick life stages: Top left to right, Adult male, adult female; Bottom left to right, larvae, nymph Credit: www.tickencounter.org
The deer tick is the smallest of the three and is the primary vector of Lyme disease but also carries the Powassan virus, Babesiosis, Anaplasmosis.It prefers areas with moisture/ high humidity as they need to rehydrate their bodies frequently, making the edges of woodland or leaf litter, hot spots. White-tailed deer are the primary mode of dispersal for the adults, but it is believed that birds may aid in long-distance dispersal of immature life stages.
This tick passively quests or waits for a host to pass close enough so that they may attach themselves. According to the CDC, “Adult ticks may be out searching for a host any time winter temperatures are above freezing. All life stages bite humans, but nymphs and adult females are most commonly found on people.”
The Lone star tick, most commonly identified by the white dot on the female’s back, can transmit several diseases such as Ehrlichiosis, Tularemia, Heartland virus, and STARI (southern tick-associated rash illness). Alpha-gal syndrome (red meat allergy), has also been recently identified and is also associated with the bite of this tick.
American Dog tick life stages: Top, left to right, Adult male, adult female; Bottom left to right, larvae, nymph Credit: www.tickencounter.org
The Lone star tick can be found in areas with tall grass or low-lying branches/twigs and unlike the deer tick, is very resistant to desiccation. Organically Green had the pleasure to hear Dr. Moses Cucura, of Suffolk County DPW, speak on these pests and from his own personal experience and research has found that they are capable of following prey for up to 60’. The adults are active anytime the weather is above 38°F and prefer large hosts (humans, turkey, deer, etc) at all life stages.
The final tick we are going to discuss is the American dog tick which transmits tularemia and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Overall, the populations are spotty on Long Island but they require an environment with high humidity and can be found in old fields, brushy woodlands, and along roadsides.
The larvae prefer rodents such as groundhogs and will frequently be located around their burrows. The adults prefer medium to large hosts such as raccoons, dogs, cats, and humans.These ticks can survive at any given stage for two years if they are unable to locate a host.
Outside of taking the usual precautions—repellents (Permethrin clothing spray), checking yourself routinely, etc.—the CDC also recommends having a pesticide applied which can reduce the number of ticks by 68%-100%.
There are also a few cultural practices that can help reduce or discourage ticks:
Widening/trimming of trails
Leaf litter removal
Gravel edge barriers
Mulch barriers—if it absorbs moisture, not effective
Canopy thinning (increase light penetration)
Knowledge of ticks, the diseases they carry, and ways to reduce their numbers can lead to early detection and treatment. If infected, reducing the chance of having long-term effects of tick-borne diseases.